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True Story:

At the height of World War II, in 1942, the British Navy had a sudden breakdown in radio communications. The British became convinced that it was a German trick. It turned out to be disturbances caused by sunspots over 93 million miles away.

The True Story of Black Hawk Down from the A&E Video Store.

Cosmos Collector's Edition Boxed set - VHS
Carl Sagan's COSMOS is one of the most influential science programs ever made.

Q. Does the moon have a dark side?

A. The moon does have a far side which is impossible to see from the earth, but it doesn't mean that it's always dark. Each side of the moon is dark for no longer than 15 days at a time.

Q. Where does sound come from?

A. The air is always filled with sound waves. All things give off vibrations, but some have a low frequency which most cannot hear. The reason: it may take 3 minutes to make a single vibration. They may be caused by earthquakes and storms.

Solar Energy Theory
by Jeanette Cain

In June 2001, scientists believed they had solved the mystery. After 14 months of measuring blue light flashes from neutrinos and other particles, scientists believed they had their answer. The measurements were taken from a detector 6,800 feet below a nickel mine in Ontario.

The accepted solar energy theory of the day states the sun as heated by atomic fusion coming from its core. Through this action the sun should emit enormous amounts of minuscule particles, electron neutrinos, into space. The electron neutrinos travel billions of light years and pass through stars without the slightest difficulty. Up until the present, the devices used for measuring apparitions, have found less than half of the suggested number by the solar energy theory. This resulted in many physicists doubting the reasons for the light of stars to shine.

In June 2001, scientists believed they have solved the mystery. After 14 months of measuring blue light flashes from neutrinos and other particles, scientists believed they had the answer. The measurements were taken from a detector 6,800 feet below a nickel mine in Ontario. Arthur McDonald at Queen's University in Kingston, Ontario, Canada was the projects director. He said that the models used for the sun are correct. McDonald says they wear disguises and are in the place they were expected to be found. The measuring instrument discovered electron neutrinos to be mixed within other types of neutrinos, which are even harder to detect. McDonald said that they may switch identities on their journey to the Earth, but once here the total is correct.

John Bahcall, a physicist at the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton, conducted a measurement in the 1960s to determine the number of neutrinos passing through the Earth from the sun's core. His calculations were somewhat off. The first neutrino detector was located in the Homestake Gold Mine in South Dakota. In 1968, it found the inaccuracy. Bahcall remembers the embarrassment and was glad to hear of these new results.

As usual with new discoveries in science-for every problem solved another one seems to take its place. This time it is, "Why do neutrinos change their identities?" The standard model of physics says the neutrinos are without mass, but the newest results show they have at least a minute piece.

The definition of a neutrino: ghost particles traveling the universe, without an electric charge and almost no mass. They pass through objects without being harmed, but they are born in the hottest places. They have come from the Big Bang through the center of supernovae and stars. They will travel through a star's outer layers giving a unique insight into its core. They are measured with a neutrino telescope, which normally uses a large tank of water to capture even a few of the neutrino particles that are passing through.


1. Petit, Charles W. U. S. News & World Report: "Science & Ideas - Physics: Here comes the sun." U.S. News & World Report, Inc.: NY. July 2, 2001, Volume 131, Number 1. p47

2. Editors. The World Book Encyclopedia. World Book-Childcraft International, Inc: Chicago. 1990

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