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Q. Does the moon have a dark side?
A. The moon does have a far side which is impossible to see from the earth, but it doesn't mean that it's always dark. Each side of the moon is dark for no longer than 15 days at a time.
Q. Where does sound come from?
A. The air is always filled with sound waves. All things give off vibrations, but some have a low frequency which most cannot hear. The reason: it may take 3 minutes to make a single vibration. They may be caused by earthquakes and storms.
Did You Know?
The microwave was invented after a researcher walked by a radar tube and a chocolate bar melted in his pocket.
Coke-a-Cola was originally green.
Rubberbands last longer when refrigerated.
GPS technology aids earthquake research
by University of Newcastle upon
GPS technology aids earthquake research
Scientists' understanding of the movement of the Earth's crust is being helped by new observing facility which is taking measurements that may one day help predict earthquakes.
Newcastle University has become the most North Westerly site in Europe and one of only two UK centres feeding Global Positioning System (GPS) data into the International GPS Service (IGS), which researchers and professionals throughout the world – including geophysicists - can access via the Internet. The other centre is the Royal Greenwich Observatory in Herstmonceux, East Sussex.
The data is collected via a GPS station 20 miles north of the city, at the University's farm, Cockle Park, in Morpeth, Northumberland, which had to meet stringent IGS standards. The distances between a circular antenna and and the GPS satellites above are measured every 15 seconds. The antenna, which is 40cm across and 15cm high, is firmly fixed in a 4.5 tonne slab of 300 million year old sandstone from Yorkshire, which is in turn embedded almost three metres into the earth.
The information is automatically downloaded hourly into a computer which quickly checks the data for accuracy before transmitting it to the IGS. Over 200 sites across the world are transmitting data on a regular basis with the Newcastle antenna being the most north westerly in Europe.
The antenna gives more accurate measurements than the average GPS system because it is very stable, being firmly embedded into the earth. It will be able to gauge movements in the Earth's crust in the North East of England, as when the Earth moves, the antenna moves with it - causing the measurements between it and the satellites to alter.
The highly accurate data could also help meteorological forecasts for the North East.
Distances between the antenna and the GPS satellites appear longer when there is water vapour in the atmosphere, as it can take a greater period of time for signals to be transmitted. These measurements can be used to compile weather forecasts.
Surveyors and other professionals taking less accurate GPS measurements in the field are likely to use this as a reference point against which they can check their own data. It is already being used in a number of university research projects involving GPS, such as the monitoring of North Sea oil platform subsidence.
Researcher Matt King, from the University's School of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, said: "The recent earthquakes in Manchester and Italy have highlighted our need to better understand the movement of the Earth's crust in England. Experience in California has shown that GPS measurements can make a valuable contribution to this understanding.
"The near real-time transmission of the data may also mean better weather forecasts for the region.
Dr King added: "The data submitted to the IGS is used to define the fundamental reference frame on which all modern survey measurements are based. Consequently, anyone making use of surveying or mapping products, such as Ordnance Survey maps, will benefit from this new project."
Further information/interviews from Dr Matt King
44-191-222-7833. email@example.com or
Dr Peter Clarke 44-191-222-6351 Peter.Clarke@ncl.ac.uk
3. Useful web pages:
International GPS Service site: http://igscb.jpl.nasa.gov/
Civil Engineering and Geosciences: http://www.ceg.ncl.ac.uk/
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