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How to Make a Measuring Jar, Limewater, and Cobalt Chloride Paper for Science Projects
by Jeanette Cain
You may use any bottle of convenient size to measure volume by marking it with lines at various levels to represent different volumes. This is called calibration.
Add four ounces of water from a measuring cup, or something similarly shaped. A graduate, which is similar to a measuring cup but shaped liked a cylinder or tapered like a triangle, that is marked with the metric system may be used.
Make a long crayon mark at the water line. Label one end of the line, 4 ounces; the middle of the line, 118.2 cubic centimeters or milliliters; the other end of the line, 0.12 liters. These measurements are equivalent to each other, which can be rounded off to the nearest decimal, and will serve to compare the English system of measuring volume to the metric system.
Add 4 more ounces of water.
Draw another line and mark it 8.0 ounces; 236.4 cc; and 0.24 liters.
Continue adding water until you've filled the bottle.
Estimate the volume between lines by marking these with a crayon. Add the numbers above and below the line and divide by two. If one line is marked 0.12 liters and the line above it is 0.24 liters, a line between the two would read 0.18 liters.
Place a teaspoonful of calcium hydroxide (slaked lime) into half a jar of water. Place the cover on the jar and shake thoroughly. Allow to stand, but occasionally shake the bottle. Let the undissolved portion settle overnight, then carefully pour the clear liquid into another jar for use in testing for carbon dioxide.
Cobalt Chloride Paper
Dissolve cobaltous chloride (colbalt II chloride) in 1/4 glass of water, and immerse strips of filter paper, or white paper towels. Remove the stips and allow these to dry in an oven warmed to about 40 degrees Centigrade, or 104 degrees Fahrenheit. When dry, the paper will be blue. Store the strips in a small, dry, tightly stoppered bottle. To test for water, touch the strip to the suspected liquid. If the blue color turns pink, water is present. This compound is sometimes used in toy weather stations to test for humidity in the air.
To convert Fahrenheit and Centigrade (also known as Celsius) temperatures, use the following formulas:
To convert Fahrenheit to Centigrade degrees:
To convert Centigrade to Fahrenheit degrees:
9/50C + 32= 0F
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